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x = 15, y = 12, rule = B3/S23 3bo7bo$2b3o5b3o$b2o2bo3bo2b2o$3b3o3b3o2$4bo5bo$2bo2bo3bo2bo$o5bobo5bo$ 2o4bobo4b2o$6bobo$3bobo3bobo$4bo5bo! #C [[ THUMBSIZE 2 THEME 6 GRID GRIDMAJOR 0 SUPPRESS THUMBLAUNCH ]] #C [[ AUTOSTART ]] #C [[ ZOOM 20 AUTOSTART OFF ]]
Pattern type Puffer
Number of cells 44
Bounding box 15×12
Direction Orthogonal
Period 12
Speed c/2
Discovered by Richard Schank
Year of discovery 2014

Pufferfish is a puffer discovered by Richard Schank in 2014. Having been found in a symmetric soup, the puffer is almost natural.[1] It consists of a pair of b-heptominos whose debris is stabilised by a backend.

It is the first known c/2 object that doesn't have any parts of periods 2 or 4.

Period-36 technology

Main article: Pufferfish spaceship

On December 27, 2014 Ivan Fomichev found a non-trivial (dependent) c/2 fuse of period 36 for pufferfish's exhaust, enabling him to assemble the first wholly high-period c/2 spaceship and rake.[2] A few days later Nico Brown found some smaller rakes.[3]

Pufferfish with a companion (p36 puffer)
Download RLE: click here
Pufferfish-based p36 spaceship
Download RLE: click here
Pufferfish-based p36 rake
Download RLE: click here


The second pufferfish-producing soup Richard Schank found resulted in a 15-glider synthesis proposed by Chris Cain.[4] On January 8, 2015 Ivan Fomichev made a p160 pufferfish breeder.[5]

Pufferfish breeder
Download RLE: click here

Chris Cain found a 60-glider synthesis of a pufferfish-based spaceship in February 2015.[6] Versions with arbitrarily increased length and population are trivially constructible at the same total cost in gliders.

Pufferfish spaceship synthesis
Download RLE: click here


  1. Richard Schank (November 24, 2014). "Re: Soup search results". Retrieved on November 25, 2014.
  2. Ivan Fomichev (December 27, 2014). "Pufferfish and companions". Retrieved on December 28, 2014.
  3. Nico Brown (December 29, 2014). "Re: Pufferfish and companions". Retrieved on December 29, 2014.
  4. Chris Cain (November 27, 2014). "Re: Soup search results". Retrieved on February 2, 2015.
  5. Ivan Fomichev (January 8, 2015). "Re: Pufferfish and companions". Retrieved on February 2, 2015.
  6. Chris Cain (February 10, 2015). "Re: Small Spaceship Syntheses". Retrieved on June 15, 2015.

External links